funcs/doy: add day of year operations and tests
http: better json representation for the bindings_for api point
interpreter: remove a pair of prints
This tshistory component provides a formula language to build computed series.
Formulas are defined using a simple lisp-like syntax, using a pre-defined function library.
Formulas are read-only series (you can't update
or replace
values).
They also have an history, which is built, time stamps wise, using the union of all constituent time stamps, and value wise, by applying the formula.
Because of this the staircase
operator is available on formulae.
Some staircase
operations can have a very fast implementation if the
formula obeys commutativity rules.
Formulas are expressed in a lisp-like syntax using operators
,
positional (mandatory) parameters and keyword (optional) parameters.
The general form is:
(<operator> <param1> ... <paramN> #:<keyword1> <value1> ... #:<keywordN> <valueN>)
Here are a couple examples:
(add (series "wallonie") (series "bruxelles") (series "flandres"))
Here we see the two fundamental add
and series
operators at work.
This would form a new synthetic series out of three base series (which can be either raw series or formulas themselves).
Some notes:
operator names can contain dashes or arbitrary caracters
literal values can be: 3
(integer), 5.2
(float), "hello"
(string) and #t
or #f
(true ot false)
Performs a scalar product on a series.
Example: (* -1 (series "positive-things"))
Add a constant quantity to a series.
Example: (+ 42 (series "i-feel-undervalued"))
Perform a scalar division between numbers or a series and a scalar.
Example: (/ (series "div-me") (/ 3 2))
Linear combination of two or more series. Takes a variable number of series as input.
Example: (add (series "wallonie") (series "bruxelles") (series "flandres"))
To specify the behaviour of the add
operation in the face of missing
data, the series can be built with the fill
keyword. This option is
only really applied when several series are combined. By default, if
an input series has missing values for a given time stamp, the
resulting series has no value for this timestamp (unless a fill rule
is provided).
Set an upper/lower threashold for a series. Takes a series as
positional parameter and accepts two optional keywords min
and max
which must be numbers (integers or floats).
Example: (clip (series "must-be-positive") #:min 0)
Produces an utc timestamp from its input string date in iso format.
The tz
keyword allows to specify an alternate time zone.
The naive
keyword forces production of a naive timestamp.
Both tz
and naive
keywords are mutually exlcusive.
Element wise division of two series.
Example: (div (series "$-to-€") (series "€-to-£"))
Computes the row-wise minimum of its input series.
Example: (min (series "station0") (series "station1") (series "station2"))
Computes the row-wise maximum of its input series.
Example: (max (series "station0") (series "station1") (series "station2"))
Element wise multiplication of series. Takes a variable number of series as input.
Example: (mul (series "banana-spot-price ($)") (series "$-to-€" #:fill 'ffill'))
This might convert a series priced in dollars to a series priced in euros, using a currency exchange rate series with a forward-fill option.
Allow demoting a series from a tz-aware index (strongly recommended) to a tz-naive index (unfortunately sometimes unavoidable for interop with other tz-naive series).
One must provide a country code and a target timezone.
Example: (naive (series "tz-aware-series-from-poland") "PL" "Europe/Warsaw")
The priority operator combines its input series as layers. For each timestamp in the union of all series time stamps, the value comes from the first series that provides a value.
Example: (priority (series "realized") (series "nominated") (series "forecasted"))
Here realized
values show up first, and any missing values come from
nominated
first and then only from forecasted
.
Resamples its input series using freq
and the aggregation method
method
(as described in the pandas documentation).
Example: (resample (series "hourly") "D")
This operator computes the row-wise mean of its input series using the
series weight
option if present. The missing points are handled as
if the whole series were absent.
Example: (row-mean (series "station0") (series "station1" #:weight 2) (series "station2"))
Weights are provided as a keyword to series
. No weight is
interpreted as 1.
The series
operator accepts several keywords:
fill
to specify a filling policy to avoid nans
when the series
will be add
ed with others; accepted values are "ffill"
(forward-fill), "bfill"
(backward-fill) or any floating value.For instance in (add (series "a" #:fill 0) (series "b")
will make
sure that series a
, if shorter than series b
will get zeroes
instead of nans where b
provides values.
This allows cutting a series at date points. It takes one positional
parameter (the series) and two optional keywords fromdate
and
todate
which must be strings in the iso8601 format.
Example: (slice (series "cut-me") #:fromdate "2018-01-01")
Computes the standard deviation over its input series.
Example: (std (series "station0") (series "station1") (series "station2"))
Takes a timestamp and a number of years, months, weekds, days, hours, minutes (int) and computes a new date according to the asked delta elements.
Example: (timedelta (date "2020-1-1") #:weeks 1 #:hours 2)
Produces a timezone-aware timestamp as of today
The tz
keyword allows to specify an alternate time zone.
The naive
keyword forces production of a naive timestamp.
Both tz
and naive
keywords are mutually exlcusive.
Example: (today)
This is a fundamental need. Operators are fixed python functions exposed through a lispy syntax. Applications need a variety of fancy operators.
One just needs to decorate a python with the func
decorator:
from tshistory_formula.registry import func
@func('identity')
def identity(series):
return series
The operator will be known to the outer world by the name given to
@func
, not the python function name (which can be arbitrary).
This is enough to get a working transformation operator. However operators built to construct series rather than just transform pre-existing series are more complicated.
We start with an example, a shifted
operator that gets a series with shifted
from_value_date/to_value_date boundaries by a constant delta
amount.
We would use it like this: (shifted "shiftme" #:days -1)
As we can see the standard series
operator won't work there, that is
applying a shift operator ((shift (series "shiftme"))
) after the
call to series is too late. The from/to implicit parameters have
already been handled by series
itself and there is nothing left to
shift.
Hence shifted
must be understood as an alternative to series
itself.
Here is a possible implementation:
from tshistory_formula.registry import func, finder
@func('shifted')
def shifted(__interpreter__, name, days=0):
args = __interpreter__.getargs.copy()
fromdate = args.get('from_value_date')
todate = args.get('to_value_date')
if fromdate:
args['from_value_date'] = fromdate + timedelta(days=days)
if todate:
args['to_value_date'] = todate + timedelta(days=days)
return __interpreter__.get(name, args)
@finder('shifted')
def find_series(cn, tsh, tree):
return {
tree[1]: tsh.metadata(cn, tree[1])
}
As we can see, we use a new finder
protocol. But first let's examine
how the shiftme
operator is implemented.
First it takes a special __interpreter__
parameter, which will
receive the formula interpreter object, providing access to an
important internal API of the evaluation process.
Indeed from the interpreter we can read the getargs
attribute, which
contains a dictionary of the actual query mapping. We are specially
interested in the from_value_date
and to_value_date
items in our
example, but all the parameters of tshistory.get
are available
there.
Once we have shifted the from/to value date parameter we again use the
interpreter to make a call to get
which will in turn perform a call
to the underlying tshistory.get
(which, we don't know in advance,
may yield a primary series or another formula computed series).
Implementing the operator this way, we actually miss two important pieces of information:
the system cannot determine a series is produced by the shifted
operator like it can with series
and because of this it cannot know the technical metadata of the
produced series (e.g. the tzaware
attribute)
This is where the finder
protocol and its decorator function comes
into play. For shifted
we define a finder. It is a function that
takes the db connection (cn
), time series protocol handler (tsh
)
and formula syntax tree (tree
), and must return a mapping from
series name to its metadata.
The tree is an obvious Python data structure representing a use of the operator in a formula.
For instance because of the shifted
python signature, any use will
be like that:
in lisp ... (shifted "shift-me" #:hours +1) ...
(the dots
indicate that it can be part of a larger formula)
tree in python: ['shifted', "shift-me", 'hours', 1]
The name is always in position 1 in the list. Hence the implementation of the shifted finder:
return {
tree[1]: tsh.metadata(cn, tree[1])
}
For the metadata we delegate the computation to the underlying series metadata.
We might want to provide an ad-hoc metadata dictionary if we had a proxy operator that would forward the series from an external source:
@func('proxy')
def proxy(
__interpreter__,
series_uid: str,
default_start: date,
default_end : date) -> pd.Series:
i = __interpreter__
args = i.getargs.copy()
from_value_date = args.get('from_value_date') or default_start
to_value_date = args.get('to_value_date') or default_end
proxy = ProxyClient()
return proxy.get(
series_uid,
from_value_date,
to_value_date,
)
@finder('proxy')
def proxy(cn, tsh, tree):
return {
tree[1]: {
'index_type': 'datetime64[ns]',
'tzaware': False,
'value_type': 'float64'
}
}
Here, because we have no other means to know (and the proxy provides some useful documentation), we write the metadata ourselves explicitly.
Also note how accessing the __interpreter__
again is used to forward
the query arguments.
The tshistory_formula
package provides a custom callback for the
editor
capabilities of tshistory_editor.
A dedicated protocol is available to inform the editor on the way to decompose/display a formula.
Example of such a function:
from tshistory_formula.registry import editor_info
@editor_info
def operator_with_series(builder, expr):
for subexpr in expr[1:]:
with builder.series_scope(subexpr):
builder.buildinfo_expr(subexpr)
The exact ways to use the builder will be provided soon.
A few api calls are added to the tshistory
base:
.register_formula
to define a formula
.eval_formula
to evaluate on-the-fly a formula (useful to check
that it computes before registering it)
Exemple:
tsa.register_formula(
'my-sweet-formula',
'(* 3.14 (series "going-round"))'
)
Example:
>>> tsa.eval_formula('(* 3.14 (series "going-round"))')
...
2020-01-01 3.14
2020-01-02 6.28
2020-01-03 9.42
dtype: float64
The tsh
command carries formula specific subcommands. The output
below shows only the specific formula subcommands:
$ tsh
Usage: tsh [OPTIONS] COMMAND [ARGS]...
Options:
--help Show this message and exit.
Commands:
ingest-formulas ingest a csv file of formulas Must be a...