Simple, elegant HTML, XHTML and XML generation.
To construct HTML start with an instance of
tags by accessing the tag's attribute on that object. For example:
>>> from html import HTML >>> h = HTML() >>> h.p('Hello, world!') >>> print(h) <p>Hello, world!</p>
You may supply a tag name and some text contents when creating a HTML instance:
>>> h = HTML('html', 'text') >>> print(h) <html>text</html>
You may also append text content later using the tag's
or using augmented addition
+=. Any HTML-specific characters (
in the text will be escaped for HTML safety as appropriate unless
escape=False is passed. Each of the following examples uses a new
>>> p = h.p('hello world!\\n') >>> p.br >>> p.text('more → text', escape=False) >>> p += ' ... augmented' >>> h.p >>> print(h) <p>hello, world!<br>more → text ... augmented</p> <p>
Note also that the top-level
HTML object adds newlines between tags by
default. Finally in the above you'll see an empty paragraph tag - tags with
no contents get no closing tag.
If the tag should have sub-tags you have two options. You may either add the sub-tags directly on the tag:
>>> l = h.ol >>> l.li('item 1') >>> l.li.b('item 2 > 1') >>> print(h) <ol> <li>item 1</li> <li><b>item 2 > 1</b></li> </ol>
Note that the default behavior with lists (and tables) is to add newlines
between sub-tags to generate a nicer output. You can also see in that
example the chaining of tags in
Tag attributes may be passed in as well:
>>> t = h.table(border='1') >>> for i in range(2): >>> r = t.tr >>> r.td('column 1') >>> r.td('column 2') >>> print(t) <table border="1"> <tr><td>column 1</td><td>column 2</td></tr> <tr><td>column 1</td><td>column 2</td></tr> </table>
A variation on the above is to use a tag as a context variable. The following is functionally identical to the first list construction but with a slightly different sytax emphasising the HTML structure:
>>> with h.ol as l: ... l.li('item 1') ... l.li.b('item 2 > 1')
You may turn off/on adding newlines by passing
True to the tag (or
HTML instance) at creation time:
>>> l = h.ol(newlines=False) >>> l.li('item 1') >>> l.li('item 2') >>> print(h) <ol><li>item 1</li><li>item 2</li></ol>
Since we can't use
class as a keyword, the library recognises
as a substitute:
>>> print(h.p(content, klass="styled")) <p class="styled">content</p>
HTML will work with either regular strings or unicode strings, but
not both at the same time.
Obtain the final unicode string by calling
unicode() on the
>>> h = HTML() >>> h.p(u'Some Euro: €1.14') >>> unicode(h) u'<p>Some Euro: €1.14</p>'
If (under Python 2.x) you add non-unicode strings or attempt to get the
resultant HTML source through any means other than
unicode() then you
will most likely get one of the following errors raised:
Probably means you've added non-unicode strings to your HTML.
Probably means you're trying to get the resultant HTML using
The HTML document is generated when the
HTML instance is "stringified".
This could be done either by invoking
str() on it, or just printing it.
It may also be returned directly as the "iterable content" from a WSGI app
You may also render any tag or sub-tag at any time by stringifying it.
Tags with no contents (either text or sub-tags) will have no closing tag. There is no "special list" of tags that must always have closing tags, so if you need to force a closing tag you'll need to provide some content, even if it's just a single space character.
Rendering doesn't affect the HTML document's state, so you can add to or otherwise manipulate the HTML after you've stringified it.
To construct XHTML start with an instance of
html.XHTML() and use it
as you would an
HTML instance. Empty elements will now be rendered
with the appropriate XHTML minimized tag syntax. For example:
>>> from html import XHTML >>> h = XHTML() >>> h.p >>> h.br >>> print(h) <p></p> <br />
A slight tweak to the
html.XHTML() implementation allows us to generate
arbitrary XML using
>>> from html import XML >>> h = XML('xml') >>> h.p >>> h.br('hi there') >>> print(h) <xml> <p /> <br>hi there</br> </xml>
If your tag name isn't a valid Python identifier name, or if it's called "text" or "raw_text" you can add your tag slightly more manually:
>>> from html import XML >>> h = XML('xml') >>> h += XML('some-tag', 'some text') >>> h += XML('text', 'some text') >>> print(h) <xml> <some-tag>some text</some-tag> <text>some text</text> </xml>
This code is copyright 2009-2011 eKit.com Inc (http://www.ekit.com/) See the end of the source file for the license of use. XHTML support was contributed by Michael Haubenwallner.