b, a distributed bug tracker extension for Mercurial
Based off and built using Steve Losh's brilliantly simple task manager
t the fundamental principle is
'Get things done, not organized', and tries to follow
"the only way to make your bug list prettier is to fix some damn bugs."
b has many powerful additions to
t, without any of the bloat
and burden of setting up, maintaining, or using a traditional bug tracker.
You can use
b exactly like
t, add, rename, resolve, and list work almost
t out of the box, with the added benefit that wherever you are in
a repository, you maintain a single bugs database in the root of the repository.
But you can do more with
b. You can reopen issues, the edit, details, and
comment commands allow you to track additional information about the bugs,
like stack traces and expected results, and whatever other information you'd
like. The details file is a plain text file, and can contain any content you desire.
You can also assign bugs to specific individuals - either based on their Mercurial commit names or not - and list lets you filter by owner to see what tasks are in your care.
b is powerful enough to support several different workflow complexities,
from an individual just tracking tasks in a repository, all the way up to a
small, distributed team of managers and developers who need to be able to
report, manage, and assign bugs, tasks, and issues, share details, and
express their opinions.
b is not intended to be be a replacement for large scale
bug trackers like Jira, Bugzilla, and the upcoming Bugs Everywhere. Most
notably, (at present)
b is just a command line tool. There is no
centralized bug list or web access, nor any GUI interface, and many of the
features in such larger projects are lacking, notably any kind of warning or
notification when a bug is reassigned, and the ability to categorize bugs and
to provide resolution reasons, like fixed or duplicate - of course these could
all be done manually, but there is no such built in functionality.
categorize bugs and to provide resolution reasons, like fixed or
duplicate - of course these could all be done manually, but there
is no such built in functionality.
If you need the power of something like Bugzilla, you're going to find
limited. However if you find many of the extra "features" in these larger
tools to be unhelpful bloat, and you don't want to waste time organizing,
categorizing, and sorting and instead want a quick, easy way to track issues
with your project with minimal setup and configuration, then
b is the tool to use!
A single developer, working on a small project, can turn that into a version
controlled project with a simple 'hg init'. With
b installed, he (or she) also
gets a fully functional bug tracker to boot, no additional setup required!
As soon as you install
b, every repository on your machine now has issue
tracking functionality ready to use.
Working on a website, you could very easily (and I might do this myself
soon enough) write a little PHP script which takes bug reports and
logs them to
b. I often find the closer to my workflow a tool is
the easier it is to use, so integrating it right into the website
makes a lot of sense.
Working on a small project with a few other team members is ideal for
it's powerful enough to let everyone track what they need to do, and allow
everyone to contribute what they can to any of the bugs on file. They can
search titles for matching bugs, and even grep through the details directory
to find details matching what they're looking for.
Working on a larger project with lots of team members starts getting questionable,
as many of the powerful features larger projects provide start to really show
their worth. However in my experience several large companies I've worked for
or with have drastically underutilized the power of their bug trackers, to the
point where all the complexity and extra metadata is just wasted space and fluff.
That's not to say that
b is necessarily a good alternative for a large company,
but it's worth asking yourself if you really benefit from all the extra tools;
many organizations could get by just fine with the features
Like any Mercurial Extension, to install
b edit a Mercurial config file
and add the following:
See the Mercurial wiki (http://mercurial.selenic.com/wiki/UsingExtensions) for more details on installing extensions.
b is a zero-configuration tool - as soon as it is installed, every single
repository is ready to start tracking issues, without any additional setup.
You may find it helpful to specify a username for yourself in your
file, however this is absolutely not necessary to work with
b has two configuration settings, both of which are optional, and should
be put in the
[bugs] section of any Mercurial config file.
You can specify a user name for bug tracking, or 'hg.user' if you wish to use your commit name. The bug tracker will work absolutely fine without this setting, but it is recommended if you will be working with multiple people.
Allows you to specify (relative to the repo root) where the bugs database should go. The default is '.bugs'
You're encouraged to read the documentation on
b - much of the functionality and usage philosophy of
carried over here.
b commands take the form
hg b command [options/parameters]. You
can see a full list and command signatures by running
hg help b.
When you're anywhere within a repository with the
b extension enabled
you can use
b. To file a new bug, all you have to do is say:
% hg b add 'This is a new bug'
And you can confirm it's been added by calling:
% hg b list
Which will show you your new bug, along with an ID to refer to it by. These IDs are actually prefixes of the full bug ID, and will get longer as more bugs are added. If you need a permanent reference to a bug, you can pass a prefix to
% hg b id ID
This will return the full ID of the bug. You'll likely only ever need the first eight or so characters - a database of 20,000+ bugs only used the first four or five in most cases.
To rename a bug, you can call:
% hg b rename ID 'NEW NAME HERE'
t's edit command, you can use sed style replacements if you so desire.
When you're finished with a bug, simply call
% hg b resolve ID
and it will be marked resolved and no longer (by default) show up in your bug list. Use 'reopen' in the same fashion if you decide to reopen a closed bug.
If you need to record more detail than just a title, edit
% hg b edit ID
will launch your default commit editor with a pre-populated set of sections you can fill out. Nothing is mandatory, and you can create or delete new sections as you'd like. Comments (see below) are appended to the end of the file, so it is suggested you leave the comments section last.
To view the details of a bug you call:
% hg b details ID
This provides some basic metadata like date filed and owner, along with the contents of the details file, if it exists. Any sections (denoted by text in square brackets) which are empty are not displayed by the details command to simplify the output.
If you want to add a comment to a bug, like feedback or an update on its status,
% hg b comment ID 'COMMENT TEXT'
will append your comment to the details file along with the date and, if set, your username (see below)
To manage multi-user projects, you can set a bug username (see the Config Options section above for how to do that) to associate with bugs, and say something like
% hg b assign ID 'John Cleese'
If the specified username can't be found in the database, you'll be prompted to
confirm that is the name you want to use, with the '-f' flag. For ease of
assigning bugs, you can use a prefix of a user's name, and as long as it's not
b will assign it to the matching username, and let you know
who it was ultimately assigned to so you can double check. Assuming no other
users named John, calling:
% hg b assign ID john
would have the same effect as the call above. The special name 'me' will assign the bug to your username, and the special name 'Nobody' will mark the bug as unassigned.
To see a list of all users
b is currently aware of, and the number of open
bugs assigned to them, you can call:
% hg b users
list has some advanced functionality that's worth knowing.
-r will list resolved bugs, instead of open bugs.
-o takes a username (or a username prefix) and lists bugs owned by the
-g will list bugs which contain the specified text in their title.
-a will sort issues alphabetically, and
-c will sort them chronologically.
These flags can be used together for fairly granular browsing of your
bugs database. In addition, you can use the
-T flag to truncate
output that would otherwise overflow beyond one line.
The read-only commands (
id) have an additional
option that can be used to run that command against a committed revision of the bug
database. To see the list of issues open at the time of this release for
instance, you could run
hg b list --rev 6.0-rc-2
How well does
Basic benchmarks indicate that
b performs well even with very large lists.
test bug lists of more than 50,000 records have been constructed and
responds very quickly, taking just a second or two to add a record,
and even less time to list bugs, especially filtering by owner or by
grep. Of course, you would have to work very hard to ever reach a bug
list even close to that number, and long before you get there you'll
likely discover you need to switch to something more powerful, so for
all intents and purposes
b should handle everything you can throw at it.
I would really like to be able to categorize my bugs, or detail how the bug was resolved, why isn't that possible?
b is philosophically opposed to tracking this sort of data, and is not
trying to replace large scale, metadata driven bug trackers.
If you find yourself wishing it had these sorts of features, you may
very well be looking at the wrong product. However, you could certainly
add such data to the details file, or add flags like P1 or BLOCKING to
issue titles if you felt the need to do so. Users have reported finding
this workflow - combined with list's -g flag, fairly satisfactory.
Can I use standard Mercurial commands inside the
Absolutely. Everything in the
.bugs directory is a standard text file,
enabling easy merging, diffing, grepping, annotating, browsing, and data
mining. If you feel so inclined, you can even edit any of the files in
the .bugs directory manually.
b commit my changes?
b does not commit after bugs are filed or changed intentionally.
The hope is that
b acts completely transparently to the underlying
repository, and that commits are never solely about bugs (unless the
user chooses so). This allows the repository structure and the commit
messages to remain concerned with the source code, and not have it fill
up with uninformative messages about every little thing you do with
It does however automatically add everything located in the bugs directory
so you shouldn't have to worry about ever leaving anything untracked.
Be careful that you don't accidentally check in .orig or .rej files that
Mercurial sometimes creates in the bugs directory, they would also be
b ever going to work with other DVCS?
b was built to be as compartmentalized from the Mercurial API
calls as possible, and while there are no plans at present to
b to work with other DVCS, the structure to do so exists.
b work with unicode or other encodings beyond ASCII?
There is an open bug (bug 286b) to improve
b's handling of
non-ASCII character sets, however at present you may run into trouble
tracking issues in other languages or encodings. Ensuring that
issues created and updated in arbitrary encodings continue to be
editable and viewable on machines with other encodings is a
non-trivial task, and likely cannot be fully resolved until
a future release of Mercurial provides more robust encoding
transformation utilities. Patches to improve this issue are
Can I use
b in a corporate environment?
b is released under GPL2+ so yes, you may. However you may
b or any derived works under any other license
than the GPL2+. If you're unsure of what you can or cannot do,
there's lots of information on the details of this license online,
and you are welcome to contact me with questions.
I have an idea for a feature, or a bug to report, what should I do?
b is released as open source software, so experiment, make or
fix it yourself if you feel so inclined. You're also welcome
to email me with suggestions, questions or code changes. Or
even pull the repository, file a bug there, and serve it up
somewhere for me to pull it back! How's that for dogfooding?
I hope you find
Copyright 2010-2012 Michael Diamond
This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.