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+Network Working Group                                         P. Deutsch
+Request for Comments: 1950                           Aladdin Enterprises
+Category: Informational                                      J-L. Gailly
+                                                                Info-ZIP
+                                                                May 1996
+
+
+         ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification version 3.3
+
+Status of This Memo
+
+   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  This memo
+   does not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of
+   this memo is unlimited.
+
+IESG Note:
+
+   The IESG takes no position on the validity of any Intellectual
+   Property Rights statements contained in this document.
+
+Notices
+
+   Copyright (c) 1996 L. Peter Deutsch and Jean-Loup Gailly
+
+   Permission is granted to copy and distribute this document for any
+   purpose and without charge, including translations into other
+   languages and incorporation into compilations, provided that the
+   copyright notice and this notice are preserved, and that any
+   substantive changes or deletions from the original are clearly
+   marked.
+
+   A pointer to the latest version of this and related documentation in
+   HTML format can be found at the URL
+   <ftp://ftp.uu.net/graphics/png/documents/zlib/zdoc-index.html>.
+
+Abstract
+
+   This specification defines a lossless compressed data format.  The
+   data can be produced or consumed, even for an arbitrarily long
+   sequentially presented input data stream, using only an a priori
+   bounded amount of intermediate storage.  The format presently uses
+   the DEFLATE compression method but can be easily extended to use
+   other compression methods.  It can be implemented readily in a manner
+   not covered by patents.  This specification also defines the ADLER-32
+   checksum (an extension and improvement of the Fletcher checksum),
+   used for detection of data corruption, and provides an algorithm for
+   computing it.
+
+
+
+
+Deutsch & Gailly             Informational                      [Page 1]
+
+RFC 1950       ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification        May 1996
+
+
+Table of Contents
+
+   1. Introduction ................................................... 2
+      1.1. Purpose ................................................... 2
+      1.2. Intended audience ......................................... 3
+      1.3. Scope ..................................................... 3
+      1.4. Compliance ................................................ 3
+      1.5.  Definitions of terms and conventions used ................ 3
+      1.6. Changes from previous versions ............................ 3
+   2. Detailed specification ......................................... 3
+      2.1. Overall conventions ....................................... 3
+      2.2. Data format ............................................... 4
+      2.3. Compliance ................................................ 7
+   3. References ..................................................... 7
+   4. Source code .................................................... 8
+   5. Security Considerations ........................................ 8
+   6. Acknowledgements ............................................... 8
+   7. Authors' Addresses ............................................. 8
+   8. Appendix: Rationale ............................................ 9
+   9. Appendix: Sample code ..........................................10
+
+1. Introduction
+
+   1.1. Purpose
+
+      The purpose of this specification is to define a lossless
+      compressed data format that:
+
+          * Is independent of CPU type, operating system, file system,
+            and character set, and hence can be used for interchange;
+
+          * Can be produced or consumed, even for an arbitrarily long
+            sequentially presented input data stream, using only an a
+            priori bounded amount of intermediate storage, and hence can
+            be used in data communications or similar structures such as
+            Unix filters;
+
+          * Can use a number of different compression methods;
+
+          * Can be implemented readily in a manner not covered by
+            patents, and hence can be practiced freely.
+
+      The data format defined by this specification does not attempt to
+      allow random access to compressed data.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+Deutsch & Gailly             Informational                      [Page 2]
+
+RFC 1950       ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification        May 1996
+
+
+   1.2. Intended audience
+
+      This specification is intended for use by implementors of software
+      to compress data into zlib format and/or decompress data from zlib
+      format.
+
+      The text of the specification assumes a basic background in
+      programming at the level of bits and other primitive data
+      representations.
+
+   1.3. Scope
+
+      The specification specifies a compressed data format that can be
+      used for in-memory compression of a sequence of arbitrary bytes.
+
+   1.4. Compliance
+
+      Unless otherwise indicated below, a compliant decompressor must be
+      able to accept and decompress any data set that conforms to all
+      the specifications presented here; a compliant compressor must
+      produce data sets that conform to all the specifications presented
+      here.
+
+   1.5.  Definitions of terms and conventions used
+
+      byte: 8 bits stored or transmitted as a unit (same as an octet).
+      (For this specification, a byte is exactly 8 bits, even on
+      machines which store a character on a number of bits different
+      from 8.) See below, for the numbering of bits within a byte.
+
+   1.6. Changes from previous versions
+
+      Version 3.1 was the first public release of this specification.
+      In version 3.2, some terminology was changed and the Adler-32
+      sample code was rewritten for clarity.  In version 3.3, the
+      support for a preset dictionary was introduced, and the
+      specification was converted to RFC style.
+
+2. Detailed specification
+
+   2.1. Overall conventions
+
+      In the diagrams below, a box like this:
+
+         +---+
+         |   | <-- the vertical bars might be missing
+         +---+
+
+
+
+
+Deutsch & Gailly             Informational                      [Page 3]
+
+RFC 1950       ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification        May 1996
+
+
+      represents one byte; a box like this:
+
+         +==============+
+         |              |
+         +==============+
+
+      represents a variable number of bytes.
+
+      Bytes stored within a computer do not have a "bit order", since
+      they are always treated as a unit.  However, a byte considered as
+      an integer between 0 and 255 does have a most- and least-
+      significant bit, and since we write numbers with the most-
+      significant digit on the left, we also write bytes with the most-
+      significant bit on the left.  In the diagrams below, we number the
+      bits of a byte so that bit 0 is the least-significant bit, i.e.,
+      the bits are numbered:
+
+         +--------+
+         |76543210|
+         +--------+
+
+      Within a computer, a number may occupy multiple bytes.  All
+      multi-byte numbers in the format described here are stored with
+      the MOST-significant byte first (at the lower memory address).
+      For example, the decimal number 520 is stored as:
+
+             0     1
+         +--------+--------+
+         |00000010|00001000|
+         +--------+--------+
+          ^        ^
+          |        |
+          |        + less significant byte = 8
+          + more significant byte = 2 x 256
+
+   2.2. Data format
+
+      A zlib stream has the following structure:
+
+           0   1
+         +---+---+
+         |CMF|FLG|   (more-->)
+         +---+---+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+Deutsch & Gailly             Informational                      [Page 4]
+
+RFC 1950       ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification        May 1996
+
+
+      (if FLG.FDICT set)
+
+           0   1   2   3
+         +---+---+---+---+
+         |     DICTID    |   (more-->)
+         +---+---+---+---+
+
+         +=====================+---+---+---+---+
+         |...compressed data...|    ADLER32    |
+         +=====================+---+---+---+---+
+
+      Any data which may appear after ADLER32 are not part of the zlib
+      stream.
+
+      CMF (Compression Method and flags)
+         This byte is divided into a 4-bit compression method and a 4-
+         bit information field depending on the compression method.
+
+            bits 0 to 3  CM     Compression method
+            bits 4 to 7  CINFO  Compression info
+
+      CM (Compression method)
+         This identifies the compression method used in the file. CM = 8
+         denotes the "deflate" compression method with a window size up
+         to 32K.  This is the method used by gzip and PNG (see
+         references [1] and [2] in Chapter 3, below, for the reference
+         documents).  CM = 15 is reserved.  It might be used in a future
+         version of this specification to indicate the presence of an
+         extra field before the compressed data.
+
+      CINFO (Compression info)
+         For CM = 8, CINFO is the base-2 logarithm of the LZ77 window
+         size, minus eight (CINFO=7 indicates a 32K window size). Values
+         of CINFO above 7 are not allowed in this version of the
+         specification.  CINFO is not defined in this specification for
+         CM not equal to 8.
+
+      FLG (FLaGs)
+         This flag byte is divided as follows:
+
+            bits 0 to 4  FCHECK  (check bits for CMF and FLG)
+            bit  5       FDICT   (preset dictionary)
+            bits 6 to 7  FLEVEL  (compression level)
+
+         The FCHECK value must be such that CMF and FLG, when viewed as
+         a 16-bit unsigned integer stored in MSB order (CMF*256 + FLG),
+         is a multiple of 31.
+
+
+
+
+Deutsch & Gailly             Informational                      [Page 5]
+
+RFC 1950       ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification        May 1996
+
+
+      FDICT (Preset dictionary)
+         If FDICT is set, a DICT dictionary identifier is present
+         immediately after the FLG byte. The dictionary is a sequence of
+         bytes which are initially fed to the compressor without
+         producing any compressed output. DICT is the Adler-32 checksum
+         of this sequence of bytes (see the definition of ADLER32
+         below).  The decompressor can use this identifier to determine
+         which dictionary has been used by the compressor.
+
+      FLEVEL (Compression level)
+         These flags are available for use by specific compression
+         methods.  The "deflate" method (CM = 8) sets these flags as
+         follows:
+
+            0 - compressor used fastest algorithm
+            1 - compressor used fast algorithm
+            2 - compressor used default algorithm
+            3 - compressor used maximum compression, slowest algorithm
+
+         The information in FLEVEL is not needed for decompression; it
+         is there to indicate if recompression might be worthwhile.
+
+      compressed data
+         For compression method 8, the compressed data is stored in the
+         deflate compressed data format as described in the document
+         "DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification" by L. Peter
+         Deutsch. (See reference [3] in Chapter 3, below)
+
+         Other compressed data formats are not specified in this version
+         of the zlib specification.
+
+      ADLER32 (Adler-32 checksum)
+         This contains a checksum value of the uncompressed data
+         (excluding any dictionary data) computed according to Adler-32
+         algorithm. This algorithm is a 32-bit extension and improvement
+         of the Fletcher algorithm, used in the ITU-T X.224 / ISO 8073
+         standard. See references [4] and [5] in Chapter 3, below)
+
+         Adler-32 is composed of two sums accumulated per byte: s1 is
+         the sum of all bytes, s2 is the sum of all s1 values. Both sums
+         are done modulo 65521. s1 is initialized to 1, s2 to zero.  The
+         Adler-32 checksum is stored as s2*65536 + s1 in most-
+         significant-byte first (network) order.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+Deutsch & Gailly             Informational                      [Page 6]
+
+RFC 1950       ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification        May 1996
+
+
+   2.3. Compliance
+
+      A compliant compressor must produce streams with correct CMF, FLG
+      and ADLER32, but need not support preset dictionaries.  When the
+      zlib data format is used as part of another standard data format,
+      the compressor may use only preset dictionaries that are specified
+      by this other data format.  If this other format does not use the
+      preset dictionary feature, the compressor must not set the FDICT
+      flag.
+
+      A compliant decompressor must check CMF, FLG, and ADLER32, and
+      provide an error indication if any of these have incorrect values.
+      A compliant decompressor must give an error indication if CM is
+      not one of the values defined in this specification (only the
+      value 8 is permitted in this version), since another value could
+      indicate the presence of new features that would cause subsequent
+      data to be interpreted incorrectly.  A compliant decompressor must
+      give an error indication if FDICT is set and DICTID is not the
+      identifier of a known preset dictionary.  A decompressor may
+      ignore FLEVEL and still be compliant.  When the zlib data format
+      is being used as a part of another standard format, a compliant
+      decompressor must support all the preset dictionaries specified by
+      the other format. When the other format does not use the preset
+      dictionary feature, a compliant decompressor must reject any
+      stream in which the FDICT flag is set.
+
+3. References
+
+   [1] Deutsch, L.P.,"GZIP Compressed Data Format Specification",
+       available in ftp://ftp.uu.net/pub/archiving/zip/doc/
+
+   [2] Thomas Boutell, "PNG (Portable Network Graphics) specification",
+       available in ftp://ftp.uu.net/graphics/png/documents/
+
+   [3] Deutsch, L.P.,"DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification",
+       available in ftp://ftp.uu.net/pub/archiving/zip/doc/
+
+   [4] Fletcher, J. G., "An Arithmetic Checksum for Serial
+       Transmissions," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-30,
+       No. 1, January 1982, pp. 247-252.
+
+   [5] ITU-T Recommendation X.224, Annex D, "Checksum Algorithms,"
+       November, 1993, pp. 144, 145. (Available from
+       gopher://info.itu.ch). ITU-T X.244 is also the same as ISO 8073.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+Deutsch & Gailly             Informational                      [Page 7]
+
+RFC 1950       ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification        May 1996
+
+
+4. Source code
+
+   Source code for a C language implementation of a "zlib" compliant
+   library is available at ftp://ftp.uu.net/pub/archiving/zip/zlib/.
+
+5. Security Considerations
+
+   A decoder that fails to check the ADLER32 checksum value may be
+   subject to undetected data corruption.
+
+6. Acknowledgements
+
+   Trademarks cited in this document are the property of their
+   respective owners.
+
+   Jean-Loup Gailly and Mark Adler designed the zlib format and wrote
+   the related software described in this specification.  Glenn
+   Randers-Pehrson converted this document to RFC and HTML format.
+
+7. Authors' Addresses
+
+   L. Peter Deutsch
+   Aladdin Enterprises
+   203 Santa Margarita Ave.
+   Menlo Park, CA 94025
+
+   Phone: (415) 322-0103 (AM only)
+   FAX:   (415) 322-1734
+   EMail: <ghost@aladdin.com>
+
+
+   Jean-Loup Gailly
+
+   EMail: <gzip@prep.ai.mit.edu>
+
+   Questions about the technical content of this specification can be
+   sent by email to
+
+   Jean-Loup Gailly <gzip@prep.ai.mit.edu> and
+   Mark Adler <madler@alumni.caltech.edu>
+
+   Editorial comments on this specification can be sent by email to
+
+   L. Peter Deutsch <ghost@aladdin.com> and
+   Glenn Randers-Pehrson <randeg@alumni.rpi.edu>
+
+
+
+
+
+
+Deutsch & Gailly             Informational                      [Page 8]
+
+RFC 1950       ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification        May 1996
+
+
+8. Appendix: Rationale
+
+   8.1. Preset dictionaries
+
+      A preset dictionary is specially useful to compress short input
+      sequences. The compressor can take advantage of the dictionary
+      context to encode the input in a more compact manner. The
+      decompressor can be initialized with the appropriate context by
+      virtually decompressing a compressed version of the dictionary
+      without producing any output. However for certain compression
+      algorithms such as the deflate algorithm this operation can be
+      achieved without actually performing any decompression.
+
+      The compressor and the decompressor must use exactly the same
+      dictionary. The dictionary may be fixed or may be chosen among a
+      certain number of predefined dictionaries, according to the kind
+      of input data. The decompressor can determine which dictionary has
+      been chosen by the compressor by checking the dictionary
+      identifier. This document does not specify the contents of
+      predefined dictionaries, since the optimal dictionaries are
+      application specific. Standard data formats using this feature of
+      the zlib specification must precisely define the allowed
+      dictionaries.
+
+   8.2. The Adler-32 algorithm
+
+      The Adler-32 algorithm is much faster than the CRC32 algorithm yet
+      still provides an extremely low probability of undetected errors.
+
+      The modulo on unsigned long accumulators can be delayed for 5552
+      bytes, so the modulo operation time is negligible.  If the bytes
+      are a, b, c, the second sum is 3a + 2b + c + 3, and so is position
+      and order sensitive, unlike the first sum, which is just a
+      checksum.  That 65521 is prime is important to avoid a possible
+      large class of two-byte errors that leave the check unchanged.
+      (The Fletcher checksum uses 255, which is not prime and which also
+      makes the Fletcher check insensitive to single byte changes 0 <->
+      255.)
+
+      The sum s1 is initialized to 1 instead of zero to make the length
+      of the sequence part of s2, so that the length does not have to be
+      checked separately. (Any sequence of zeroes has a Fletcher
+      checksum of zero.)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+Deutsch & Gailly             Informational                      [Page 9]
+
+RFC 1950       ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification        May 1996
+
+
+9. Appendix: Sample code
+
+   The following C code computes the Adler-32 checksum of a data buffer.
+   It is written for clarity, not for speed.  The sample code is in the
+   ANSI C programming language. Non C users may find it easier to read
+   with these hints:
+
+      &      Bitwise AND operator.
+      >>     Bitwise right shift operator. When applied to an
+             unsigned quantity, as here, right shift inserts zero bit(s)
+             at the left.
+      <<     Bitwise left shift operator. Left shift inserts zero
+             bit(s) at the right.
+      ++     "n++" increments the variable n.
+      %      modulo operator: a % b is the remainder of a divided by b.
+
+      #define BASE 65521 /* largest prime smaller than 65536 */
+
+      /*
+         Update a running Adler-32 checksum with the bytes buf[0..len-1]
+       and return the updated checksum. The Adler-32 checksum should be
+       initialized to 1.
+
+       Usage example:
+
+         unsigned long adler = 1L;
+
+         while (read_buffer(buffer, length) != EOF) {
+           adler = update_adler32(adler, buffer, length);
+         }
+         if (adler != original_adler) error();
+      */
+      unsigned long update_adler32(unsigned long adler,
+         unsigned char *buf, int len)
+      {
+        unsigned long s1 = adler & 0xffff;
+        unsigned long s2 = (adler >> 16) & 0xffff;
+        int n;
+
+        for (n = 0; n < len; n++) {
+          s1 = (s1 + buf[n]) % BASE;
+          s2 = (s2 + s1)     % BASE;
+        }
+        return (s2 << 16) + s1;
+      }
+
+      /* Return the adler32 of the bytes buf[0..len-1] */
+
+
+
+
+Deutsch & Gailly             Informational                     [Page 10]
+
+RFC 1950       ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification        May 1996
+
+
+      unsigned long adler32(unsigned char *buf, int len)
+      {
+        return update_adler32(1L, buf, len);
+      }
+
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+Deutsch & Gailly             Informational                     [Page 11]
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